将式(1-35)用曲线表示，如图 1-29曲线6所示，是一 条过坐标原点的二次抛物线。
当泵的工作流量Q≠Qd时，例如Q<Qd; 进口液流角β1;<β1A,因而液流便冲向叶片的工作面上，在非工作面上产生旋锅，造成很大的能量损失。这种损失就是冲击损失。冲击损失的大小与叶片角β1A和液流角β1间的差值△β有关。△β称为冲角，其定义为 △β=β1A-β1。当Q<Qd时,△β>0;当Q>Qd时，△β<0,如图1-28所示。
将式(1- 36)用曲线表示，如图1- 29曲线7所示。在设计流量时没有冲击损失，与设计工况点偏离越多，即工作流量小于或大于设计流量越多,冲击损失越大。
安徽快3开奖结果Friction loss of slurry pump
Friction loss (referred to as friction loss) refers to the friction loss along the way when the liquid flows through the suction chamber, impeller passage, volute and diffuser (or guide vane), as well as the local resistance loss caused by turning, sudden contraction or expansion of the liquid flow.
According to the hydrodynamics, when the viscous fluid flows along the solid wall, the fluid flow field can be divided into two areas. The thin layer close to the wall is called the boundary layer. The viscous force of the fluid must be considered in the boundary layer, and the flow in the boundary layer can be regarded as the swirling flow of the viscous fluid. Although the boundary layer is very thin, the fluid velocity changes sharply along its thickness direction, which seriously affects the physical phenomena such as the energy loss in the process of fluid flow and the heat exchange between the fluid and the wall. The experimental results show that the friction loss of the fluid is concentrated in the boundary layer, and the central part outside the boundary layer has a small viscous force, which can be regarded as the irrotational flow of the ideal fluid.
The friction loss HT is usually calculated by Darcy formula, namely:
Where λ - resistance coefficient along the path, which is related to re and relative roughness of the channel surface。
Since the flow rate of liquid in the pump is large, λ can be considered as a constant after entering the square area of resistance. Therefore, the total friction loss is regarded as being proportional to the square of speed, that is, to the square of flow, which is expressed as:
Where C - coefficient related to surface roughness and flow area of flow passage.
Equation (1-35) is represented by a curve, as shown in Figure 1-29 curve 6, which is a quadratic parabola passing through the coordinate origin.
2) Impact loss
When the liquid flow enters the liquid channel (or guide vane channel), the energy loss caused by the impact is called impact loss because the relative direction angle β 1 of the liquid flow is not consistent with the inlet angle β 1a of the blade, and the liquid flow angle A2 of the liquid leaving the impeller and entering the energy conversion device is not consistent with the blade angle ax of the energy conversion device.
As we all know, centrifugal pump is designed at a certain flow rate. The impeller blade inlet angle β 1a is calculated according to the design working condition, so when the pump works at the design flow QD, the liquid flow angle β 1 entering the impeller blade is consistent with the blade angle β 1a. In the blade inlet speed triangle, β 1 = β 1a, the liquid flow can enter the impeller channel smoothly without impact.
When the working flow of the pump Q ≠ QD, for example, Q < QD; the inlet liquid flow angle β 1; < β 1a, so the liquid flow will rush to the working surface of the blade, which will produce a rotary pot on the non working surface, resulting in great energy loss。 This kind of loss is impact loss。 The impact loss is related to the difference △ β between blade angle β 1a and liquid flow angle β 1。 △ β is called angle of impact, which is defined as △ β = β 1A - β 1。 When Q < QD, △ β > 0; when Q > QD, △ β < 0, as shown in Figure 1-28。
The impact loss can be calculated by the following formula:
In the formula, HSH is the hydraulic loss caused by the impact of liquid flow at the inlet of impeller blade and in the pressure chamber;
C2 is the resistance coefficient, which is related to the flow area。 Slurry pump manufacturer
Equation (1-36) is represented by curve, as shown in Figure 1-29, curve 7。 There is no impact loss in the design flow, and the more deviation from the design operating point, that is, the more the working flow is less than or greater than the design flow, the greater the impact loss。
It can be seen from the above analysis that part of the energy given by the impeller to the liquid is used to overcome the friction loss and impact loss of the flow passage components from the pump inlet to the discharge port, so that the actual lift h of the pump is lower than the theoretical lift ht of the finite blade, that is: